fire fighting equipment

FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT: EVERYTHING YOU SHOULD KNOW

Fire-related incidents are common in homes, offices, factories, markets, and even hospitals. They usually occur due to human error, faulty electrical appliances, or other factors. Fire incidents can be disastrous if they are not contained as quickly as possible, hence the importance of fire fighting equipment.

The fire incidents recorded in the year 2019 and 2020 were 1,822 and 1,910 respectively in Ghana, while in Nigeria, 2,410 were recorded in 2021 alone.

Fire fighting equipment is essential for maximum protection against the destructive effects of fire-related incidents. They can be used as preventive measures against fire outbreaks, as well as safety measures during fire emergencies.

TYPES OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT

Fire fighting equipment includes (but is not limited to) the following:

  1. Fire Hydrants
  2. Hydrant Valves
  3. Fire Hose
  4. Fire Hose Reel
  5. Fire Hose Cabinet
  6. Fire Fittings
  7. Fire Nozzles
  8. Fire Monitors
  9. Foam Equipment
  10. Fire Bladders
  11. Fire Sprinkler Systems
  12. Alarm Check Valves
  13. Fire Alarms
fire hydrants-fire fighting equipment

Fire Hydrants

Fire hydrants are fixed devices that provide access to water for the purpose of fighting fires. A fire hydrant is usually connected to a main water supply network to ensure the unlimited availability of water during fire outbreaks. They are typically located around buildings, parking areas, roadsides, mines, industrial areas, etc. 

Fire hydrants are used to extract water for fire fighting and other purposes. They allow firefighters to access a local water supply quickly. Valves and nozzles are important components of fire hydrants (and other fire fighting equipment), they enable the user to control the direction, pressure, and flow of water with the help of a hose. The user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant, then opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water. Learn more about these components below.

hydrant valves-fire fighting equipment

Hydrant Valves

Hydrant valves are fittings in a fire hydrant that help to regulate, direct or control the flow of water by opening, closing, or partially obstructing passageways in the hose connectors. Most fire hydrant valves are designed to be operated full-on or full-off. When in the ‘open’ or ‘on’ position, the valve rises to permit water entry into the barrel of the hydrant. When in the ‘closed’ or ‘off’ position, the valve lowers to block water passage. 

Valves commonly used in fire hydrants include gate valves, globe valves, butterfly valves, relief valves, and check valves. However, gate valves are the most popular. A gate valve is a valve that opens by lifting a barrier out of the path of the fluid. Gate valves hardly restrict the flow of fluid when the gate is fully opened, hence, they are perfect for fire fighting.

fire hose-fire fighting equipment

Fire Hose – Fire Fighting Equipment

A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that is used to transport water from a water source (such as a fire hydrant) to a fire in order to extinguish it. Fire hoses can also be used to channel other fire retardants (like foam) from the source to a fire. After use, a fire hose must be hung to dry, because leaving water in the hose for a long time can deteriorate the material and render it unreliable or unusable. 

Fire hoses that have larger capacities carry more water at low temperatures. If the hose is of a smaller diameter, it will need higher pressure. The most important factor in determining the effectiveness of a fire hose is the diameter of the hose. Fire hoses are manufactured in the following configurations:

  • Single jacket
  • Double jacket
  • Rubber single jacket
  • Hard rubber non collapsing tires
  • Each type of fire hose is designed for a specific purpose
FIRE HOSE REEL-fire fighting equipment

Fire Hose Reel

A fire hose reel is a cylindrical metal spindle with a fire hose wound around it. It is designed to be used by both skilled and unskilled firefighters as a quick-response method for fighting fires in their early stages. Fire hose reels are permanently connected to a water supply and consist of the main valve, a hose guide, and a hose with a nozzle. They

are located to provide a reasonably accessible and controlled supply of water to combat a potential fire risk. They are ideal for high-risk environments such as schools, hotels, and factories. When properly used, fire hose reels prevent fire hoses from tangling and allow the hoses to be carried in any direction. The hose attached to a fire hose reel can apply water to the fire even if most of the hose is still wound around the reel.

fire hose cabinet-fire fighting equipment

Fire Hose Cabinet

A fire hose cabinet is a steel box designed to safely store fire equipment such as fire hose rack assembly, fire extinguisher, and fire hose reel. Fire hose cabinets are usually mounted in areas where they can be conveniently accessed for fire fighting. They protect the equipment inside from theft, vandalism, and dirt.

What is the size of a fire hose cabinet?Dimension: height 30 in x width 30 in x depth 8 in. For installation of fire hoses of 75 or 100 feet, and of fire extinguishers of 5 or 10 lbs.

  • Hose Reels & Cabinets. Fire Hose Box.
  • Water / Foam Monitor.
  • Hydraulic Pressure Testing Machine.

fire fittings-fire fighting equipment

Fire Fittings – Fire Fighting Equipment

These include hose connectors, adapters, and couplings that securely connect fire hoses to nozzles, hydrants, fire trucks, and other water sources. They help firefighters save time in emergency situations.

fire nozzles-fire fighting equipment
Side water nozzle
fire nozzles
Pendant water curtain nozzle

Fire Nozzles

Nozzles are short tubelike devices used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, and pressure of the water emerging from a fire hydrant or a hose. A fire nozzle is typically attached to the end of a hose to enable a firefighter to deliver water in any direction, at any speed and pressure.

There are five basic nozzle types:

  • the solid bore.
  • the single gallonage (sometimes called variable pressure/variable flow)
  • the adjustable gallonage.
  • the automatic or constant pressure.
fire monitor-fire fighting equipment

Fire Monitors

A fire monitor is NOT used to monitor or detect the presence of fires as the name implies. Fire monitors are controllable high-capacity water jets used for manual or automatic fire fighting. They are also known as deluge guns, master streams, or deck guns. Fire monitors can be portable or fixed onto fire-fighting vehicles.

Like fire hydrants, fire monitors are used to delivering large amounts of water for fire extinguishing purposes. They are commonly used in high-risk environments such as industries that are prone to fire outbreaks. A fire monitor can discharge up to 7,500 liters of water per minute, this makes it perfect for putting out large fires.

foam equipment-fire fighting equipment
Mobile Foam Trolley Unit

Foam Equipment – Fire Fighting

Fire fighting foam is a foam used for fire suppression. It acts by cooling the fire and coating the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen (which is necessary for combustion to continue). Foam equipment includes bladder tanks or fire bladders, branch pipes, foam pourers, foam chambers, foam concentrate pump skids, portable foam trailers, and foam concentrates. 

fire bladder
fire bladder
fire bladder

Fire Bladders

Fire bladders are collapsible tanks used to store fire retardants such as water or foam. Water storage bladders are also referred to as “pillow tanks”, because they resemble a pillow when full. They are commonly used for emergency water storage, especially in areas where water is not readily available to put out fires. Foam bladder tanks are steel pressure vessels fitted with internal bladders that store foam concentrate. During operation, water supplied to the bladder tank displaces the foam concentrate and collapses the bladder until the concentrate is depleted.

fire sprinkler systems
fire sprinkler systems
fire sprinkler systems

Fire Sprinkler Systems

A fire sprinkler system consists of a water supply, a water distribution piping system and fire sprinklers or sprinkler heads. Fire sprinklers are the major components of the fire sprinkler system, they discharge water when the effects of a fire have been detected. A fire sprinkler typically contains a heat-sensitive bulb that detects changes in temperature, the sprinkler is then activated when a predetermined heat level is reached. Fire sprinkler systems are usually installed in ceilings or side walls inside buildings, and water flow is regulated by alarm check valves.

alarm check valves

Alarm Check Valves Fire Fighting Equipment

The alarm check valve is a core element in fire sprinkler systems. The alarm check valve is a water flow alarm device designed for vertical installation in the main supply to a wet pipe sprinkler system. The valve controls water pressure in the sprinkler system until it is needed to suppress a fire and helps to prevent the reverse flow of water. It can be activated either manually or electronically. Alarm check valves are important for the security of the sprinkler system. It must be installed in the sprinkler system even if alarm systems are installed because its working mechanism helps in early warning of the presence of a fire. 

Fire Alarms

Fire alarms are devices that alert people when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide, or other warning signs of a fire incident are detected. They are usually found in offices, factories, and public buildings. They include heat detectors, smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, multi-sensor detectors, and manual call points.

At Effcon Equipment we provide you with the best firefighting equipment in Nigeria and Ghana. You can check the list of our available fire-fighting products here.